The diagnosis and 3-stage treatment of a young 7.7 year old girl with a difficult high angle Class II skeletal pattern and crowding. The MM angle reduced from 39° to 31° during treatment.

Treated case six
Treated case six
Treated case six

The diagnosis of high angle cases

– recognising soft tissues factors
– evaluating the hard tissue components

The management of a three stage approach

– careful overall planning at the start
– separating the stages for effective treatment

How to achieve orthopaedic change

– techniques with functional appliances
– the preferred timing for optimal improvement

The extraction / non-extraction decision

– relief of crowding with enamel reduction
– the proclination of lower incisors as a factor

Gummy smiles

– possible causes, skeletal and muscular
– why it may be unwise to attempt treatment